1. Historical Background
On 8 May 1945 (VE Day), there existed in Europe a far-flung supply system that had developed in the more than three years of American effort to defeat the Axis forces. Supplies shipped from the United States flowed through European ports to dispersed depots, from which they moved to U.S. military users and consumers.
Since the war in Europe was an allied effort, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces (SHAEF) exercised general supervision over the entire supply system. For certain classes of supplies -- notably solid fuels and petroleum products -- SHAEF made the overall allocations to the several allied national forces, as well as to the civilian economies. Nevertheless, in general, supplies flowed through national supply channels, and U.S. supply policy was, for the most part, controlled by Headquarters, European Theater of Operations US Army (ETOUSA), which, like SHAEF, was commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Operationally, U.S. wartime supply was the responsibility of the Communications Zone (COMZ), in whose Paris headquarters were the offices of the theater chiefs of services. The service chiefs exercised technical control over their service supplies and supervised the operation of base, intermediate, and advance sections. In turn, the chiefs of these sections had responsibility for the supply operations and supply installations in their designated areas.
Immediate supply support for the armies came from the COMZ Advance Section (ADSEC) and Continental Advance Section (CONAD), which extended their activities into Germany but had no area responsibility in that country. They maintained and operated the advance supply points from which the armies drew their supplies. Behind them were the intermediate and base sections, which controlled the depots and transportation lines through France and Belgium to the United Kingdom.
By reason of the rapid advances immediately before the cessation of hostilities in Europe, U.S. fighting forces had progressively increased the distance between the fighting fronts and the COMZ sources of reserve supplies. Tactical supply levels were considerably lower than those doctrinally prescribed, and Army transportation resources had to be used to a degree far beyond that normally required. In spite of these conditions, the overall supply picture was favorable, since Army objectives were realized is good order and in good time. It was, perhaps, even fortunate that reserve supplies were so far behind the tactical units because the formal capitulation of the German armed forces on 8 May 1945 so changed the character and scope of basic supply requirements that much material -- no longer needed -- had to be shipped rearward from forward areas to COMZ storage and supply installations. Further, on VE Day some U. S. forces were occupying territory from which they had to withdraw in accordance with agreements prescribing the geographical delimitations of each allied nation's zone of occupation. (See Maps 1 and 2.) The presence of large quantities of tactical reserves in these areas would have imposed a heavier post-war task.
War Department supply policy for the immediate post-war period assigned first priority to satisfying requirements in the Pacific theater of operations until the final defeat of Japan. Except for the supplies still required in the inactive European theater -- e.g., clothing, medical, and food items -- outstanding requisitions and shipment orders were to be canceled. Revised requisitions, based on requirements for occupation tasks, were to be submitted in their place.
In Germany, COMZ was responsible for providing administrative support to U.S. forces, establishing required installations, and determining the supplies and levels needed to support the occupation forces. The first depots to be relocated in Germany were issue depots established by the Advance Section, Continental Advance Section -- the two advance sections were liquidated in June and July -- Berlin District (established in May), and Bremen Port Command (established in June). Gradually, depots in southern Germany and Berlin were converted to combination filler-issue depots, and the depots in the Bremen enclave were converted to base depots.
Existing German installations were used to the maximum so as to reduce the U.S. need for new construction. When required and practical, new construction was accomplished through the use of German labor and materials.
Before the dissolution of the combined command (i.e.., SHAEF) on 14 July, General Eisenhower on 1 July redesignated ETOUSA, the highest U.S. command in the theater, as the U.S. Forces, European Theater (USFET) with a main headquarters in Frankfurt and a rear echelon (Communications Zone) in Paris. By 11 July all U.S. forces in Germany were located is the areas designated for U.S. military occupation. Two military districts were established on 1 August as the major ground force commands is German -- the Eastern Military District comprising Land Bavaria, and Western Military District comprising Land Hessen, the Bremen subdistrict, and those parts of Laender Baden and Wuerttemberg not occupied by French forces. (See Map 3. )
After these organizational changes, the U.S. Army forces had completed their transition to the status of occupation troops.
On 1 August, USFET established the Theater Services Forces, European Theater (TSFET) in Frankfurt in place of COMZ headquarters in Paris. As the mayor logistic command, TSFET exercised responsibility for all fixed installations in occupied Germany and the liberated countries and commanded all service troops.
Established at Rheims, France, an 10 December 1945 and relocated to Bad Nauheim, Germany, in early January 1946, the Continental Base Section took over the functions of TSFET, which was discontinued on 28 February 1946. The Continental Base Section provided logistic support to U.S. occupation forces in Germany and Austria, commanded the Bremen Port Command and the base and filler depots in the theater, and discharged responsibility for the bulk storage and distribution of all supplies. USFET continued to prescribe theater supply and administrative policies and retained certain logistic functions, such as determining supply disposition actions.
The immediate U.S. post-war concern in Europe had been the fulfillment of U.S. obligations under the terms of Allied agreements, and the command,
organization, disposition, and support of U.S. forces in their new role as occupants.
Considering, however, that the U.S. occupation would last for at least five years and that the presence of large numbers of unaccompanied U.S. personnel in the desolate and melancholy atmosphere of a destroyed and defeated Germany would give rise to the development of serious troop morale problems, planners envisioned the establishment of military communities, where in-theater military dependents would live and receive support at a level equal to that provided at stateside Army posts in 1937. Nearby station complement garrisons would provide services; receive, store, and issue the supplies required to sustain the military and dependent population; perform all but major maintenance services; and operate local medical and hospitalization facilities. Senior U.S. command units would distribute supplies and materials to the station complements responsible for the support of troops and dependents within the specified communities, distribute supplies directly to units and dependents unattached to a recognized community, perform major maintenance services for all occupation forces, and furnish fixed hospitalization facilities to supplement those locally available.
These military garrisons developed into the post-oriented structure, through which support was furnished to and through the post organizations. The first U.S. military dependents arrived in Europe on 29 April 1946; by 1 July their in-theater strength totaled 7,500. This strength continued to increase so that by 1 December 1952 -- the date on which USAREUR implemented the area command concept -- dependents in Europe totaled almost 70,000, some of whom were located in France as a result of an earlier U.S. decision to reestablish a French line of communications (LOC). (1)
2. Establishment of the Area Commands
Effective 1 December 1952, USAREUR changed the military post structure to realize significant manpower, material, and fund savings without, however, diminishing the quality or efficiency of the support provided under the military post concept. USAREUR consolidated the posts and subposts into area commands, which assumed the missions and responsibilities of the organizations they replaced. (See MAP 4.)
a. The Northern Area Command (NACOM). NACOM consisted of the former Frankfurt and Wuerzburg Military Posts and the Bamberg Subpost of the Nuernberg Military Post. NACOM headquarters was located at Frankfurt. Its commander was the commanding general of the former Frankfurt Military Post.
b. The Southern Area Command (SACOM). Consisting of the former Augsburg, Garmisch, Nuernberg (less Bamberg Subpost), Munich, and Stuttgart Military Posts and the Karlsruhe Subpost of the Heidelberg Military Post, the Southern Area Command had its headquarters at Munich. The commander of the former Munich Military Post was designated the SACOM commander.
c. The Western Area Command (WACOM). The geographic area of the former Rhine Military Post was designated as the Western Area Command.
d. The Headquarters Area Command (HACOM). The area comprising the former Heidelberg Military Post, less the Karlsruhe Subpost, was designated as the Headquarters Area Command.
e. Bremerhaven, Berlin, and Wiesbaden. The Bremerhaven Port of Embarkation (BPOE) continued without change. The former Berlin Military Post was redesignated the Berlin Command. The Wiesbaden Military Post, which comprised an area wherein were concentrated Air Force activities and personnel, was reorganized along lines suggested by the Twelfth Air Force, and in coordination with USAREUR's logistic planners. (2)
3. Initial Responsibilities of Commanders of Area Commands
In general, area commanders were to provide supplies and services to units, agencies, and personnel stationed within their geographic areas. Other responsibilities included the provision and administrative correlation of certain support services, such as, chaplain and radical activities; the enforcement of rules of military conduct and discipline; the control of military police activities and functions; the maintenance
of general and internal security; the preparation and ,justification of fund requirement estimates; and the performance of other general functions and services. In addition to their general courts-martial ,jurisdiction, area commanders assumed special and summary courts-martial ,jurisdiction over certain Amy personnel located within their respective areas of responsibility. (3)
In 1953, the area commands were reorganized and their detachments consolidated. Though area command missions changed slightly, the area commanders retained their principal responsibilities. (4)
4. The Southeastern Area Command (SEACOM)
Until 1953, two separate areas -- one at Garmisch, the other at Berchtesgaden -- had been known collectively as the USAREUR Recreation Area. In May of that year, the two areas were redesignated as the Southeastern Area Command. By June 1954, however, SEACOM had been discontinued, its responsibilities and functions being transferred to the Southern Area Command. The consolidation saved 16 officer and 104 enlisted spaces and simplified area support operations. (5)
5. Elimination of NACOM Districts
On 1 December 1954, NACOM eliminated its two districts and redesignated the Bamberg, Darmstadt, Frankfurt, Giessen, Hanau, Kassel, Schweinfurt, and Wuerzburg Detachments as subareas. On the same date, CINCUSAFE assumed responsibility for the administrative and logistic support of the Rhine-Main and Wiesbaden Airbases, thereby relieving the NACOM commander of these functions. The eight subareas were later incorporated into three. This organization endured until 1958. (6)
6. WACOM Reorganization
Effective 1 January 1955, WACOM discontinued its Worms Subarea and reorganized the remaining five subareas to provide services in the sector for which the Worms Subarea had been responsible. Except for the transfer of selected area support quartermaster troop support missions to Seventh Army in 1957 and 1958, this organizational arrangement endured until 1 April 1958. (7)
7. General Staff with Troop Positions
Effective 1 April 1955, CINCUSAREUR authorized the three area commanders to redesignate their G1, G2, G3, G4, and Comptroller staff positions as "general staff with troops" positions, thereby responding positively to area commanders' requests made repeatedly since the implementation of the area command concept. (8)
8. Consolidation of NACOM and HACOM
On 1 April 1958 NACOM's subareas were abolished, and HACOM was incorporated under the "12-post" concept, the 12 posts reporting directly to NACOM headquarters. The purpose of the consolidation was to save personnel and eliminate one headquarters. (9)
Not to be confused with Teledyne (NYSE: TDY).
A temporary duty assignment (TDA), also known as "temporary duty travel" (TDT), "temporary additional duty" (TAD) in the Navy and Marine Corps (or TDI for "temporary duty under instruction", referring to training assignments), or "temporary duty" (TDY) in the Army and Air Force, refers to a United States Government employee travel assignment at a location other than the employee's permanent duty station. This type of secondment is usually of relatively short duration, typically from two days to 179 days in length. Not all agencies use this designation. Some government agencies including the Defense Department mandate they be less than six months in duration. Those agencies that do not mandate a six-month limit consider longer durations to be a Permanent Change of Station (PCS).
Temporary duty assignments usually come with per diem pay, covering lodging, meals, and incidental expenses. Many employees value the per diem aspect of a TDA, since that money is guaranteed, even if they spend less than their allotted daily value. However, some agencies handle the lodging per diem separately from the meals and incidentals, and employees may not make money by staying at cheaper accommodations, or putting more than one person in a room. Typically, an employee may request a cash advance of 60–80% of the total value of the meals and incidental expenses before the TDA per diem takes place, in order to prevent the employee from having to use his or her own money, or putting money on a personal credit card. Government travel cards are also typically available, though these sometimes carry restrictions on the types of goods or services that can be purchased with them.
Some locations have furnished apartments for long-term stay. These apartments have fully equipped kitchens so TDA recipients have the option to cook rather than always eat out, and some may have free washing machines and clothes dryers.
Some government agencies consider any assignment over 45 days as an extended TDA, which allows the employee to be reimbursed for part of the expenses before the end of the assignment.