Show MoreMesopotamia and Egypt At the time of the rise of the first civilizations, both Mesopotamia and Egypt were dominant civilizations. One could argue that the first civilizations had various similarities, but they also had many differences, that of which made them early civilizations. Both Mesopotamia and Egypt grew up in river valleys. Surrounding Mesopotamia were the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and Egypt’s river source was the Nile. These civilizations depended on these rivers to have productive agriculture in arid areas. However, these rivers were different. The Nile was predictable, rising annually and bringing soil and water to Egypt’s rich agriculture. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers also rose annually, but were unpredictable and…show more content…
Each city state was ruled by a King, who controlled the walled city and its surrounding rural area. Almost 80% of Sumer’s population lived in city states, making Mesopotamia considered the more urbanized city of the ancient times. There was often warfare among these city states, which caused people to flee to the cities for protection. The conflicts led to the fall of Sumerian cities, and brought an end to its phase of the civilization. Many peoples, like the Akkadians, Babylonians, and the Assyrians, later came to power, creating larger territorial states and bureaucratic empires. The Egyptian civilization, for 3000 years, maintained unity and independence, with occasional interruptions. Wind patterns, making it easy to sail South of the Nile, and the current flow north of the Nile, created exchange, unity, communication, and stability within the Nile Valley. Most people lived in agricultural based villages along the river as opposed to urban centers, because Egypt’s greater security made it unnecessary for people to gather in towns. Though at this point, Mesopotamia and Egypt seem very different, they still have many similarities. Egypt and Mesopotamia both created their own form of writing. Egyptian civilization used hieroglyphics, which were sacred carvings. Mesopotamian civilization used cuneiform, which was wedge-shaped symbols on clay tablets that represented objects, abstract ideas, sounds, and syllables. Both civilizations were polytheistic in religion,
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Difference between Assyrian and Babylonian
Assyrian vs Babylonian:
Throughout the history, many great people lived in the many different eras one o which is the Mesopotamian area. It is interesting and inspiring to study their great civilizations. Mesopotamia is a toponym for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, north eastern Syria, south eastern Turkey and south western Iran. Mesopotamian civilisation is known as one of the most developed and widely spread civilisation in the world history. Assyria and Babylonia were the two neighbouring sister-states of ancient Mesopotamia competed for dominance and as such grew widely different in character. Assyrians and Babylonians are people who lived in those estates respectively. Therefore, this paper is aiming at delivering all those differences for those who are yet blind to the distinction between Assyrian and Babylonian. Also, this paper is providing a slight description foe both Assyrians and Babylonians.
Who are Assyrians?
Assyrians are people from Assyria. Chaldeans, Syrians, Syriacs, Aramaeans are their later names. Assyrians are a distinct ethnic group whose origins lie in ancient Mesopotamia. Assyrians were one of the earliest civilizations emerging in the Middle East, and have a history spanning over 6760 years. They are Eastern Aramaic speaking Semites who trace their ancestry back to the Sumero-Akkadian civilisation that emerged in Mesopotamia circa 4000- 3500 BC. Assyrians were neither Arabian nor Arabs, they were not Kurdish either, and their religion was not Islam. The Assyrians were Christian, with their own unique language, culture and heritage. In the year 722 BC, the northern kingdom of Samaria was conquered by the Assyrians and transformed into a province of the Assyrian Empire.
The Assyrians were brutal when conquering armies. The Assyrians tended to be ruthless and kill mercilessly. That is probably what brought out the end of the Assyrian civilization so many other civilizations hated Assyria that they teamed up against Assyria so that it would be conquered. They tended to kill the people they captured (after conquering the land), and did not rule very “nicely”, either. They believed that ruling by brutal force was more effective. However, the Assyrian nation existed as an independent state, and often a powerful empire, from the 24th century BC until the end of the 7th century BC.
Who are Babylonians?
Babylonians were people who lived in Babylonia. The Babylonians existed from about 7000 to about 2500 years ago in the area of present day Iraq. They were intelligent inventive people who made significant advances in science and agriculture. Babylon was the name of their capital city and that is why they are called Babylonians. Babylon was a hub for education. Their culture valued literature and mathematics. Among other things, they invented an intricate system of irrigation to feed their crops. Due to their irrigation system, Babylon was one of the most fertile areas even though its location was the desert. Babylonian contribution to civilization is remarkable considering where they lived. The desert environment did not prevent them from excelling in architecture, science, math and astrology. To date, their achievements are still a vivid prove of their sophisticated civilization and their outstanding contribution to humanity.
The Babylonians were also accomplished in arts and crafts. They were also accomplished in the construction of beautiful buildings and temples made from sun dried clay bricks dyed a variety of colours. They have left remarkable achievements behind them including the great Hanging Gardens and have excelled in art, technology, mathematics and astrology. The Babylonian system of mathematics was a base 60numeral system. From this we derived the modern day usage of 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, and 360 (60x 6) degrees in a circle. They determined the square root of two correctly to seven places. Their knowledge of the Pythagorean Theorem helped shape current modern mathematics.
What is the difference between Babylonian and Assyrian?
Assyria adopted much of its culture from the Babylonians, including cuneiform writing. They also invented a form of longitude and latitude for use in geographical navigation. The Babylonians took Assyrian mathematics a step further with the development of the sexadecimal system based on the number 60. The Assyrian and Babylonian religions were similar in that they had hundreds of gods who ruled over every aspect of life. But their religious ideas diverged in other aspects, especially with respect to their chief god. The Assyrians named Assur as the chief god, and the Babylonians worshiped Merodach. On the other hand, Babylonians were more religious, while Assyrians were more war-like. Assyria had better climate than Babylonia owing to the fact that it was located in a highland region north of Babylonia.
While merchants and agriculturalists sprung up in Babylonia, Assyrians became more militaristic, forming an organized military camp ruled over by an autocratic king as the supreme ruler. War-like Assyria focused on military undertakings, but never matched the advanced agricultural technology of the Babylonians. However, they achieved mastery of Iron Age weaponry. Since Babylonia occupied the fertile lands of the Tigris and the Euphrates, they were primarily interested in agriculture. Babylonian farmers planted grains and used dikes and irrigation ditches to channel water from the rivers to their crops. The military kings of Assyria were autocrats who led the nation in its pursuit of war, invasion and conquest. Assyria had the largest standing army in the Middle East at that time. In contrast to Assyria, the Babylonians placed emphasis on their priests as the leaders in culture and religion. But they were not against warfare. If threatened, they defended themselves, and when they saw weakness in Assyria, they took advantage and eventually conquered their neighbour to the north.
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