Three Gorges Dam Case Study Geography Of Africa

understanding   the   freshwater   issues

2014 - Video  productions  

Paper 2 - Exam Question.

Fluvial land forms can only be classified as either erosional or depositional. Critically examine this statement.   (10)

You are going to write this up as a group effort (use the framework sheet below)

Watch the five videos above. Making notes on the processes of formation, use at least four examples of the features to attempt to answer the question above. Don't forget to use the IB Essay Planning Tool. 

 Human   Modifications - toulouse

ObjectiveExamine the human modifications of a floodplainand their effect on the size and probability of floods. 

Task 1 - Turn to page 90 of Waugh - Integrated Approach. Use the A3 outline sheet to annotate on the features of a river with 1. Free Reign and 2. that has been corseted. Add suitable titles to your work.

Task 2: Evaluate the costs and benefits of alternative stream management strategies (PowerPoint). 

Case Study Toulouse
Click here for the worksheetto fill in using Toulouse as the case study example (Note: Website is in French and will require a good understanding of the language to complete). Click here to access the website in Toulouse. 

You will be given two plans of Toulouse town centre and must come up with a display to show residents of Toulouse what is being done to protect them from a catastrophic flood event as seen in the 1875. 

History of Flooding in Toulouse
Create a timeline of events using this page showing the historical flooding events in Toulouse.  Perhaps create a living graph to show the flood events linking the chart with some photos. You could also locate historical photos of the events on the map of Toulouse. 

Mapping the Risk to Toulouse - Levees
i. Using this interactive plan, annotate on all the levées protecting  the city and inhabitants.  Here is your photo sheet. 

Mapping the risk to Toulouse - Vannes et Pompes (valves & pumps)
ii. Using this information page as well as the animation, locate the pumping station in Sept Derniers on the map and take two sreen shots of the system before writing a brief summary of how the system works and what it prevents from happening. 

Mapping the risk to Toulouse - Les portes étanches (Flood Gates)
iii. Using this information page, locate Porte de Viguerie and annotate onto the map the protection method as well as a photo.  Do the same for Porte de Garonnette and locate

**Optional Extra** - Here is the sheetfor the IB Toulouse boat trip to see in practice what we have been learning about.

Case Study Colarado USA - Option 2
Turn to page 93-97 in Integrated Approach and use the Colarado basin as your focus to answer the IB style question below. 

Case Study Thailand - Option 3
Alternative Study - Floodplain management in Thailand - BBC Article

Exam practice.
With reference to one named area of floodplain, evaluate the costs and benefits of at least three different stream management strategies. (10)


Groundwater Management -  Australia 

"Groundwater is used by 2 billion people worldwide making it the single most used natural resource" Planet Earth Sciences.

Starter - Under the title and quote above, produce a sketch map of Australia with the extent of the Artesian Basin highlighted on top. 

Task 1 - Explain the functioning and management of artesian basinsand aquifers, distinguishing between natural and artificial recharge.

Screen Shots of video for worksheet
Videos is embedded above.

Task 2 - Turn to page 8 - Rivers and Water Management - Garrrett Nagle. Read the section entitled Groundwater.

a - Outline what is meant by the phreatic zone and ouline the different layers within.

b - Groundwater accounts for what % of freshwater on earth?

c - Why is some groundwater considered to be a non renewable resource?

d - Outline the key features of an aquifer

e - Outline the key ways in which groundwater can be recharged.

f - Conduct some research to find a case study example of artificial recharge (irrigation, reservoirs etc)

g - How can groundwater be lost?

h - Make a sketch of diagram b on page 10 - Groundwater in Semi Arid regions. This links in to your case study on the Great Artesian Basin in Australia.


Human  Uses  -  Great  Artesian  Basin

Groundwater   Abstraction

Wetlands  as  a  Water  Resource

Irrigation   &   Agriculture

Objective: To examine the environmental impacts of agriculture and irrigation on water quality: salinization, agro-chemical runoff, the pollution of ground water, the eutrophication of lakes, rivers and wetlands.

You will be completing a four part case study looking at the different effects of agriculture and irrigation on water quality. 

Each of the parts should take you around 15-20 minutes to complete and there is an exam question at the end to plan and produce. 


Part 2

Dams & Reservoirs 

Objective: Analyse the hydrological changes resulting from the construction of dams and reservoirs. Examine the costs and benefits of dams and reservoirs as part of multi-purpose schemes.

Complete tasks 1 & 2 on the work sheet above right. 

Task 1 - Background
Read Geofile 410 September 2001 and make notes on the generic social, economic, environmental, political and issues (SEEP) surrounding dam construction. 

Task 2 - Environmental Impacts
a. Click to read this BBC Futures article - Outline the environmental impacts of dams to affected areas. 
b. Then read GeoFile Online River management schemes – blessing or curse? (Ed 399, April 2001) 
. Scroll to page 2 and pay particular attention to 'The Drawbacks of Large Schemes'. Outline the hydrological changes resulting from dam construction
c. Outline what has been done in the Grand Canyon by reading and highlighting this 2012 article from the Daily Mail.  

Task 3 - Major Case Study 
China & Three Gorge Dam Project. 
You should read this article from October 2013 to set the scene about the situation in China. Make notes on the shortage of water and the following quote:

China has 20% of the world’s population but only 7% of its fresh water

Use this SEEP framework sheet to record Three Gorges Dam information as you read it. 

a. Read the Geo Fact Sheet 114 -  Three Gorges Dam 

b. Read this recent storyabout the human impact of the scheme in China from BBC news and study this infographic

c. Watch the YouTube videos to the right.

d. Complete the essay question:

Examine the costs (SEEP) and benefits (SEEP) of dams and reservoirs as part of multi-purpose schemes using a case study location that you have studied.  (10) 

Level 6 & 7 Additional Reading
Hydrological Effect of Dams - Resource 3 Comprehensive Word Document (Excerpted from Silenced Rivers: The Ecology and Politics of Large Dams by Patrick McCully)

Human Mismanagement Case Study - The Val di Stava Dam collapse occurred on July 19, 1985, when two tailings dams above the village of Stava, near Tesero, northern Italy, failed. It resulted in one of Italy's worst disasters, killing 268 people, destroying 63 buildings and demolishing eight bridges.


Fluvial Landforms

Objective: To explain stream channel processes and explain the resultant land forms found on floodplains. 

Quick Game? Click here and again?Click here ... one last challenge?Click here

Starter - Study the geographyalltheway.com slideshare to the right and take notes on the four different types of river erosion on page 4 as well as the four types of transportation on page 5. 

You are going to split into teams of five. Each team will represent one of the following:

Team 1. V-Shaped Valleys 
Team 2 - Waterfalls 
Team  3. Floodplains, levées,
Team 4 -Deltas 
Team 5. Meanders, oxbow lakes & point bars 

Task 1 - You are going to create a three strip cartoon about your allocated features under the headings above.

  1. Definition
  2. Formation
  3. Examples from one of your IB focus countries 
  4. Human uses of that particular feature

Excellent source of information here

Task 3 - Getting the water out. Make some revision notes based on the video to the right. Include details of how water has been traditionally extracted from deep under the surface.

Task 4 - Practical human uses of the GAB. Watch the video below to make notes of how rural communities use the GAB from 17.40 to 23.00. 
Task 5 - Over extraction and the GAB - Go back and watch the video in task 4 from 23.00 to 32.00 and make notes on the impacts of over extraction and what is being done to prevent it. 
Task 1 - Read over the three articles underneath and complete two case studies on the environmental impacts of groundwater abstraction in different global locations. Examine both the causes and effects that this abstraction has on areas and communities that are affected.

Resource 1 - Guardian Newspaper Article - Asparagus and Groundwater shortages
Resource 2 - Groundwater extraction in Las Vegas
Resource 3 - Lake Naivasha - Kenya - PDF - Withering under the pressure of international flower vendors

Task 2   - Africa - The full extent of groundwater supplies. 

Starter: Watch the first video to the right hand side. 

a. Read the breaking news from April 2012 - Huge Groundwater supply found beneath Africa. BBC news article here & study the graphic to the right (click to enlarge). 
a. What implications could this have on health and well-being in Sub Saharan Africa? Think of access to freshwater, water-borne diseases, agriculture. 
b. Pay particular attention to those areas where there is the highest productivity. 
c. Use the CIA World Factbook for key data for those countries. 
d. Include a copy of the graphic to the right in your mini report.

Extra Research - Watch the last video to the right and take notes on effects of Groundwater extraction on the environment.
IB Paper 2 - Exam QuestionReferring to at least one example, examine the environmental effects of groundwater abstraction. [10 Marks]  
Don't forget to use the essay planning tool 
Africa: Further information can be found here
ObjectiveDescribe the role of wetlands as a water resource. 

Click here to be taken to an explanation of how wetlands are utilized as a water resource.

Task 1 - Using this worksheet, create some revision notes outlining the major values and a brief explanation of each. 

Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of the 
management strategiesthat have been adopted in Florida USA.

Task 2 -  Using the Google Map below, write an accurate description of the site (actual location) and situation (in relation to what is around it) of the Kissimmee Wetlands. 
Restoration since 1992

Task 5 - Watch the video to the right (don't worry if you can't understand the old guy at the beginning - he's not too important!) and take notes on the key areas of progress. 

Task 6 - using the embedded PDF below, outline the major environmental developmentssince 1992 in the restoration of the Kissimmee River system.

Task 7 - Create a table to show the management methods used to return the system back to its original state. 
Task 3 - Watch the (slightly military, fast paced!) video above and take notes. 

Click here to access the associated PDF. 

Task 4
i. Use the hyperlink above to explain the background to the project.
ii. What happened to this natural system?
iii. Why was the system altered? … in response to what?
iv. How was it altered?
v. Outline the problems that this caused to the system

Part 1 - Salinization 

Task 1
Open this linkand read the information on Salinization. Summarise how the process happens and how it is linked to irrigation and agriculture. Briefly explain how its effects can be combated. Also embedded to the right. 

Task 2
Open this link. It explains the problems caused by Salinization in the Adelaide, SA. Read over the document but pay particular attention to ‘The stressed Murray-Darling River system’ and ‘What is water salinity’?

Task 3
Create two spider diagrams that show 1. The causes of Salinization in the Murray Darling and 2. The effects
•PPM = Parts per million 

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